Since ancient times, mankind used in everyday life and production not only tin, but also its alloy with copper, which is called tin. Due to the fact that this metal has unique properties, its use in human life has a special place. Not since ancient times, but for quite some time humanity has also been asking itself the question, how to retire a car.
Tin is a soft metal that has the following properties:
In the rolling proce
ss, the minimum thickness of the tin foil can be 0.005 mm. In a normal environment, tin resists chemical attack well, so it is very often used for a protective layer of objects that are subjected to corrosion. Moreover, the oxidation of tin is not harmful for the human body. Therefore, for the production of containers and utensils that are used for food, it is safe to use tin.
Tin, in the process of combining with many non-ferrous metals, produces high quality alloys. Among the most necessary of these are babbitts and bronze, which are considered the basic element of many solders and alloys. The necessary compounds are tin dioxide and stannates (Na2[Sn(OH)6]).
Industrial companies that produce tin experience enormous costs due to the fact that tin ores are poor ores. In addition, there are not many raw material sources in nature that contain tin.
The production of the valuable material is far inferior to the output of other metals. There are fewer and fewer reserves of such raw materials, which contain valuable metal rock.
Dependent as well as colonial countries are rich in the subsoil of tin raw materials, even though many of the capitalist powers with developed industries have almost no such reserves. Significant reserves of tin ore are located in Canada and in Russia. America produces almost no tin, but its consumption accounts for more than fifty percent of the primary production extracted from other countries.
The consumption of pure tin by Western Europe is about thirty-five per cent, and the receipt of this element accounts for two per cent of all the production of the raw material by the capitalist states. The African countries and southern and eastern Asia produce eighty per cent. of tin in concentrates, and its consumption of the total output is about four per cent. Secondary tin plays an enormous part: the use of this product of the total consumption occupies more than thirty per cent.
In the capitalist countries, in tin production, great attention is given to concentration processes and monopolization. Some of the leading tin-producing trusts have united in the so-called International Tin Council, which is responsible for tin mining, a
nd set the prices of metallic tin and their concentrates. In addition, the council provides its member countries with quotas for the production and export of tin. This allocation creates controversy among member states, especially the United States and England.
The main industry that uses tin is the canning industry, where all the white tin produced is consumed. If you take all the tin produced in total, then more than 1/3 of the output is used to make this tin. More than fifty percent of tin is used for the production of babbitts, solders, alloys for printing presses, bronzes and brasses.
Whereas a lot of tin used to be required to make foil, this same packaging material has now been replaced by foil made from aluminum. Tin dioxide (SnO2) is used to make lead-tin glazes and enamels with high heat resistance. Stannates, are used during the mordant dyeing of fabrics.
In the middle of XX – century in the USA the issue of reduction of this chemical element for production of material for canning jars began to gain momentum. However, production of canning ware grew tirelessly, and within 10 years it went up from 24 billion cans to 42 billion pieces per year. At the same time, the production of white tin material was introduced, through electrolytic coating, replacing the hot-dipping method, thus saving the consumption of tin.
In the fifties of the twentieth century, the U.S. produced seventy-five percent of white tin using the electrolytic method. It is said that the Americans mastered the process of making containers without the use of this element. England, uses forty-five percent tin, up to thirty percent alloys, ten percent solders, four percent foils and sheets, five percent compounds and salts, and about seven percent tin is spent for tinning.
The high price and scarcity of tin forces most countries to reduce its use, and to find ways to consume substitutes. The most common replacements for tin in production are zinc and aluminum, making extensive use of bronze and babbitts with little or no Sn.